( ) . , , . , XXIXVIII . . . , , , . .

, (, ) , . , , , .

, , 1000 . : , .

: , . : , , .

, , , , : . , , . 15 1496 . , . .

. , .

XVI . , . XVII . , . XVIII . , .

: 1561 , , .

, ; , . , Nicotiania .

  ,  ,        17-  18- . , . , XVI . . XVII . , 1634 . . .

, , , . , . XVI , , , , ; , .

.

  ,    XV,         ! 1571 . . , 36 . . , . . , XV, !

XVII - , , . , , XIV, , , . , , , . .

  XVIII . . XVIII . . , .

I 1697 ., .

19- , .

1890 26 . 1908 - , . .

, .

1930-1940- , . , . , .

, ( - ) , " " - , \Winston Churchill \Franklin Roosevelt. : " - ". - , , . , .

. . 1938 ( ). 1939 . , , . , . 1941 60 . 1941 ( 80-95%) . 1943 , 18- , . 1944 .

: 1940- 1950- . 1950- , .

1960 . , . 1971 . , , .

1980- : 85%. 1990-

, . . , , .

, , , . , , , . , . , , , . , , , . . ( , ).

, . . : , , , .

, ,

. , . , .

  17-

, , . .

17- , , . , , . , . Alderman II 1700. Alderman . " " " ", . 18- " ". , .

     ,    . , . , , . ., . , . . , , , . . 20- Philip Morris American Tobacco Company , Marlboro Lucky Strike.

. . .

. . , . 2003 . -. . .

, , . , .

. , .

 , .

6000 . . .

1 . .. - , ( , ).

600 - 1 . .. . ( ). .

1492 . . . . , , , , . , , . , , "" - ( ).

1501 . : ( ) - , , , . .

1531 . : -.

1548 . . .

1560 . ( ). . , . , , , , , , . 1587 " "\De herbe panacea. . , 1603 ( ), 1635 .

1575 . : , ( ).

1610 . . () , , , .

, , . 1689 . \Robert K. Massie, " "\Peter the Great, , : " " . - , - . - - : "".

1614 . . . : , , , , , . " " - 1990- . 40% - ( ) .

1620 . . - , . . : ( 1845 ) , "" ( 1875 ) - , , .

1620- . . , - "" ( ). 1830- , , , : , (), . , ( ) , ( ).

1624 . . : , , , . , : - , ( ).

1636 . - Tabacalera ( ).

1640- . . 20- .

17- . - , ( ). . 20- . : .

- . 1920- - , . , . . 1929 : , , - , , . " ". , , , . \Department of Health, 18-20 1911 1925 1939 . , , , .

1683 . . ( ) . ( , ). .

1730 . () , . " ", .

1761 . , . \John Hill , , . , .

1790 . . Lorillard, . 1910- .

1795 . , . , , , .

1776 . . , . . 1789 " " - , . ( ). 1848 - . , -, ( - ). , , . . . .

1823 . \Clement Moore (" "\A Visit From St. Nicholas) - - . , .

1828 . . , " ".

1830- . . , . , , , .

1854 . "" - .

1860 . . Blackwell Tobacco Company, Bull Durham. 1880- - 1876 \Albert Hook ( ). \James Bonsack, , 1881 , 48 . ( "" ).

, . 20- . 1.2 . , , , . , 90% .

1868 . : .

1881 . ( Philip Morris) .

1883 . \Oscar Hammerstien . , , .

1886 . , . JB Duke Cameo. , Marlboro, Philip Morris 1924 , "" - ", ". " " 1954 . Marlboro , .

1913 . . RJ Reynolds Camel, 20 . Camel , - ( ).

1915 . ( \Davis Starr Jordan): " - ".

1914-1918 . . , . \John Pershing : " , , ". , . . 1919 \Washington University , ( !) - .

1926 . \Lloyd Hughes . Axton-Fisher Tobacco, Spud Brand.

1927 . . , Pez, ( , ). , Pez .

1936 . " ". . , , , .

B&W ( Viceroy), , , , . 1950- - 1-2% . 1952 ( Kent), , .

1951 . \World Tobacco Congress , 3-5% .

1952 . ( Good Housekeeping) .

, \George VI . , - . 1999 Benson and Hedges , .

1953 . ( ) , . .

1954 . . \Ira Lowe Philip Morris, , - , , . .

1964 . \Surgeon General ( ) , , .

1966 . , \Walt Disney ( ) , , , : . , Walt Disney , ( - Miramax Touchstone Pictures).

1967 . : , , , .

1971 . , , , .

   : " , , "

1972 . "" - . (Marlboro Lights). 2001 \US National Cancer Institute , "" , .

1981 . .

2003 . \World health Organization . 146 . ( ).